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Monitoring: Packet capture and export of data to text files for further processing by third party toolsAttacking: Replay attacks, deauthentication, fake access points and others via packet injectionTesting: Checking WiFi cards and driver capabilities (capture and injection)Cracking: WEP and WPA PSK (WPA 1 and 2)
If you are having issues injecting or if you are receiving an error message talking about channel -1 orfixed channel in airodump-ng (top right of the screen) or aireplay-ng, kill the network managers usingairmon-ng check kill before puttingthe wireless card in monitor mode.
The Wi-Fi Alliance intended WPA as an intermediate measure to take the place of WEP pending the availability of the full IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA could be implemented through firmware upgrades on wireless network interface cards designed for WEP that began shipping as far back as 1999. However, since the changes required in the wireless access points (APs) were more extensive than those needed on the network cards, most pre-2003 APs could not be upgraded to support WPA.
WPA also includes a Message Integrity Check, which is designed to prevent an attacker from altering and resending data packets. This replaces the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) that was used by the WEP standard. CRC's main flaw was that it did not provide a sufficiently strong data integrity guarantee for the packets it handled. Well-tested message authentication codes existed to solve these problems, but they required too much computation to be used on old network cards. WPA uses a message integrity check algorithm called TKIP to verify the integrity of the packets. TKIP is much stronger than a CRC, but not as strong as the algorithm used in WPA2. Researchers have since discovered a flaw in WPA that relied on older weaknesses in WEP and the limitations of the message integrity code hash function, named Michael, to retrieve the keystream from short packets to use for re-injection and spoofing.
Pre-shared key WPA and WPA2 remain vulnerable to password cracking attacks if users rely on a weak password or passphrase. WPA passphrase hashes are seeded from the SSID name and its length; rainbow tables exist for the top 1,000 network SSIDs and a multitude of common passwords, requiring only a quick lookup to speed up cracking WPA-PSK.
Brute forcing of simple passwords can be attempted using the Aircrack Suite starting from the four-way authentication handshake exchanged during association or periodic re-authentication.
When it comes to protecting sensitive data, tokenization and encryption are common solutions. Many businesses around the globe use a combination of these technologies to protect credit card data (PCI/CHD), personally identifiable information (PII), protected health information (PHI), automated clearing house (ACH) data, and more.
Due to its risk-reducing capabilities, tokenization is frequently deployed to protect cardholder information and other PCI data. With tokenization as a PCI compliance solution integrated into the payment stream, card data usually a credit card primary account number (PAN) is immediately sent to a secure cloud platform for tokenization. From there, it is stored and swapped with a mathematically unrelated token; the token is sent back to the merchant to use for additional processing and storage, and the real PAN is sent on by the token provider to the payment processor to complete the transaction.
Excessive blood levels of lidocaine can cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure 10,7. With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to the block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system, and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present 10,7. The net effect is normally a modest hypotension when the recommended dosages are not exceeded 10,7.
In particular, such cardiac effects are likely associated with the principal effect that lidocaine elicits when it binds and blocks sodium channels, inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of electrical action potential impulses necessary to facilitate muscle contraction 10,7,8. Subsequently, in cardiac myocytes, lidocaine can potentially block or otherwise slow the rise of cardiac action potentials and their associated cardiac myocyte contractions, resulting in possible effects like hypotension, bradycardia, myocardial depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and perhaps cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse 10,7,8.
In addition to blocking conduction in nerve axons in the peripheral nervous system, lidocaine has important effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system 10,7,8. After absorption, lidocaine may cause stimulation of the CNS followed by depression and in the cardiovascular system, it acts primarily on the myocardium where it may produce decreases in electrical excitability, conduction rate, and force of contraction 10,7,8.
Symptoms of overdose and/or acute systemic toxicity involves central nervous system toxicity that presents with symptoms of increasing severity 7. Patients may present initially with circumoral paraesthesia, numbness of the tongue, light-headedness, hyperacusis, and tinnitus 7. Visual disturbance and muscular tremors or muscle twitching are more serious and precede the onset of generalized convulsions 7. These signs must not be mistaken for neurotic behavior 7. Unconsciousness and grand mal convulsions may follow, which may last from a few seconds to several minutes 7. Hypoxia and hypercapnia occur rapidly following convulsions due to increased muscular activity, together with the interference with normal respiration and loss of the airway 7. In severe cases, apnoea may occur. Acidosis increases the toxic effects of local anesthetics 7. Effects on the cardiovascular system may be seen in severe cases 7. Hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest may occur as a result of high systemic concentrations, with potentially fatal outcome 7.
Pregnancy Category B has been established for the use of lidocaine in pregnancy, although there are no formal, adequate, and well-controlled studies in pregnant women 10. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place 10. Ultimately, although animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, lidocaine should not be administered during early pregnancy unless the benefits are considered to outweigh the risks 7. Lidocaine readily crosses the placental barrier after epidural or intravenous administration to the mother 7. The ratio of umbilical to maternal venous concentration is 0.5 to 0.6 7. The fetus appears to be capable of metabolizing lidocaine at term 7. The elimination half-life in the newborn of the drug received in utero is about three hours, compared with 100 minutes in the adult 7. Elevated lidocaine levels may persist in the newborn for at least 48 hours after delivery 7. Fetal bradycardia or tachycardia, neonatal bradycardia, hypotonia or respiratory depression may occur 7.
Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta and when used for epidural, paracervical, pudendal or caudal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity 10. The potential for toxicity depends upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration 10. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone, and cardiac function 10.
The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life 10. The long-term significance of these observations is unknown 10. Fetal bradycardia may occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients receiving paracervical nerve block anesthesia with the amide-type local anesthetics and may be associated with fetal acidosis 10. Fetal heart rate should always be monitored during paracervical anesthesia 10. The physician should weigh the possible advantages against risks when considering a paracervical block in prematurity, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal distress 10. Careful adherence to the recommended dosage is of the utmost importance in obstetrical paracervical block 10. Failure to achieve adequate analgesia with recommended doses should arouse suspicion of intravascular or fetal intracranial injection 10. Cases compatible with unintended fetal intracranial injection of local anesthetic solution have been reported following intended paracervical or pudendal block or both. Babies so affected present with unexplained neonatal depression at birth, which correlates with high local anesthetic serum levels, and often manifest seizures within six hours 10. Prompt use of supportive measures combined with forced urinary excretion of the local anesthetic has been used successfully to manage this complication 10.
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